What is Shoulder Instability?
Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocation of the shoulder joint.
Causes of Shoulder Instability
A dislocation occurs when the end of the humerus (ball portion) partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid (socket portion) of the shoulder. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.
Risk Factors of Shoulder Instability
The risk factors that increase the chances of developing shoulder instability include:
- Injury or trauma to the shoulder
- Falling on an outstretched hand
- Repetitive overhead sports such as baseball, swimming, volleyball or weightlifting
- Loose shoulder ligaments or an enlarged capsule
Symptoms of Shoulder Instability
The common symptoms of shoulder instability include pain with certain movements of the shoulder, popping or grinding sound that may be heard or felt, swelling and bruising of the shoulder seen immediately following subluxation or dislocation.
Visible deformity and loss of function of the shoulder occur after subluxation or sensation changes such as numbness. Partial paralysis can occur below the dislocation because of pressure on nerves and blood vessels.
Treatment Options for Shoulder Instability
Conservative Treatments for Shoulder Instability
The goal of conservative treatment for shoulder instability is to restore stability, strength and a full range of motion. Conservative treatment measures may include the following:
Closed reduction: Following a dislocation, your surgeon can often manipulate the shoulder joint, usually under anesthesia, realigning it into proper position.
Medications: Over-the-counter pain medications and NSAIDs can help reduce the pain and swelling. Steroidal injections may also be administered to decrease swelling.
Rest: Rest the injured shoulder and avoid activities that require overhead motion. A sling may be worn for 2 weeks to facilitate healing.
Ice: Ice packs should be applied to the affected area for 20 minutes every hour.