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What is Achilles Tendinitis?

Inflammation of the Achilles tendon is known as Achilles tendinitis or tendonitis.

The Achilles tendon is a tough band of fibrous tissue that runs down the back of your lower leg and connects your calf muscle to your heel bone. The tendon is used when you walk, climb, jump, run and stand on your tip toes.

Causes of Achilles Tendinitis

Achilles tendinitis occurs as a result of repetitive stress to the tendon. The stress may be due to:

  • Overuse of the tendon
  • Degeneration of the tendon
  • Intense physical activity
  • A sudden increase in activity
  • Tight calf muscles
  • Bone spurs or extra bone growth
  • Rheumatoid arthritis and/or infection

Types of Achilles Tendinitis

Based on which part of the tendon is affected, Achilles tendinitis can be differentiated into:

  • Insertional Achilles tendinitis: In this type, the lower portion of the tendon, where it attaches (inserts) to the heel bone is inflamed due to bone spurs.
  • Non-insertional Achilles tendinitis: In this type, the middle portion of the tendon breaks down with tiny tears (degenerate), swells, and thickens. This is more commonly seen in younger and active people.

Signs and Symptoms of Achilles Tendinitis

Some of the signs and symptoms of Achilles tendinitis include:

  • Stiffness and pain along the Achilles tendon.
  • Swelling and thickening of the tendon.
  • Swelling or discomfort in the back of your heel.
  • Pain in the back of your heel that worsens with activity.
  • Tight and stiff calf muscle.
  • The skin on the heel is warm to touch.
  • Limited motion when you flex the foot.

What if Achilles Tendinitis is Left Untreated?

If Achilles tendinitis is left untreated, it may cause:

  • Severe pain
  • Trouble walking or exercising
  • Deformation of the tendon or heel bone
  • Total tear or rupture of the Achilles tendon

Diagnosis of Achilles Tendinitis

To begin with, your doctor will physically examine your calf, heel, foot and ankle to look for symptoms associated with Achilles tendinitis and ask you some questions on how you got injured. Your doctor will also palpate the affected area to elucidate the exact location of pain or discomfort.

Subsequently, imaging tests may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis of Achilles tendinitis. These tests include:

  • X-rays: For images of leg bones and foot (to check for bone calcification)
  • MRI scans: To detect tendon ruptures or tissue degeneration
  • Ultrasounds: To check for tendon damage or inflammation

Treatment of Achilles Tendinitis

Treatment for Achilles tendonitis ranges from home remedies to nonoperative therapies to surgery for severe cases.

As a home remedy, you may be advised to use RICE protocol: Rest, Ice, Compression (with bandage) and Elevation, which is usually effective in treating Achilles tendinitis.

Afterward, you may be given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or steroid or PRP injections as a nonoperative therapy. You may also be told to wear a brace and undergo physical therapy involving certain exercises.

Other Foot & Ankle Topics

  • American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons
  • AOSSM-American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
  • Midwestern University